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hemiarthroplasty, preoperative preparation, osteotomy, operative technique, fasciotomy, internal fixation, arthroscopy, skin incision, tibial, radial head, acromioplasty, fifth metatarsal, arthroscopic, external fixation, arthroplasty,
Various forms of massage, traction, and manipulation have been used in medicine throughout the world for several thousand years. Each modality represents an approach to treatment of the musculoskeletal and other systems sought by a steadily increasing number of people.
While research on each of these modalities continues, a long-standing variable exists that unites them all—the concept of touch. In the 1940s, Rene Spitz reported on infants in foundling homes who, although otherwise healthy and well cared for, failed to thrive and often died in the absence of being held or touched. Kunz and Krieger additionally defined and taught the principles behind the related concepts of healing touch and therapeutic touch in the 1970s.
Although no consensus exists on the complete physiology of massage, traction, or manipulation, these treatment approaches are generally accepted as more than just the interaction of mechanical forces and human anatomy. Touch has a long history of being a natural, essential component of healing and health maintenance.
Synonyms and related keywords: massage, traction, manipulation, healing touch, Eastern massage, Western massage, therapeutic manipulation, soft-tissue manual therapy, effleurage, petrissage, tapotement, deep friction massage, percussion message, deep pressure, Shiatsu, acupressure, reflexology, auriculotherapy
Wieting & Cugalj 2007
Metal has been used extensively in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants in a multitude of different forms. Multiple different materials throughout history have been tested as replacements for bone. Materials as diverse as ivory, wood, rubber, acrylic, and Bakelite have been used in the manufacture of prosthetic implants.
The extensive use in modern times of metallic alloys is related to the availability and success at the beginning of the 20th century of several different alloys made of the noble metals. Implants made from iron, cobalt, chromium, titanium, and tantalum are commonly used. Clinical studies have demonstrated that alloys made from these metals can be used safely and effectively in the manufacturing of orthopedic implants that are left in vivo for extended periods. The mechanical, biologic, and physical properties of these materials play significant roles in the longevity of these implants.
Corces & Garcia 2007
In contrast to deep heating modalities, superficial heating modalities usually do not heat deep tissues, including muscles, because the subcutaneous layer of fat beneath the skin surface acts as a thermal insulator and inhibits heat transfer. Additionally, increased cutaneous blood flow from superficial heating causes a cooling reaction as it removes the heat that is applied externally. In general, the transfer of heat (whether the purpose is heating or cooling) often is classified into 3 general types of heat transfer (ie, conduction, convection, conversion).
Synonyms and related keywords: superficial heat, superficial cold, ice packs, paraffin baths, cryotherapy, Fluidotherapy, hydrotherapy, moist air therapy, radiant heat therapy
Milton J Klein, DO, MBA 2006
Composite digital-end tissue loss in industry and the kitchen is labeled as a "minor" injury. There are no published data to estimate the social and industrial work-hour losses, and other implications accurately; but by all accounts, there is a disproportionate loss in time, money and aesthetic appearance. At present, the standard of care for such injury is with skin graft or skin flaps by a number of techniques. They are sensate or insensate, local or distant, and often involve complex finger immobilization. Some are also technically challenging. Yet no procedure is widely acceptable that restores both optimal functionality and cosmetic outcome rapidly. We advanced this volar advancement flap (VAF) concept modifying upon the technique described by Moberg1 (1964) and Snow2 (1967). However, unlike them, we used one neurovascular bundle with our VAF. It is safe, simple to do, and reproducible. It may be used in any digit and multiple digits at a time for most types of composite tip loss. It restores a sensate, durable, cosmetically acceptable fingertip with minimal loss of digital length, skill and work-hours. Also, this avoids dorsal skin necrosis, loss of sensation, and joint stiffness as seen with cross finger flap and in other VAF techniques.
We present the anatomical study showing the basis of the concept and tested the VAF in a tertiary hospital based, cross-sectional, consecutive case study series. A larger series of prospective study is recommended.
Somes C Guha, Stephen M. Milner and Amitabha Chanda
DeLateur defined therapeutic exercise as the prescription of bodily movement to correct an impairment, improve musculoskeletal function, or maintain a state of well-being.1 It may vary from highly selected activities restricted to specific muscles or parts of the body, to general and vigorous activities that can return a convalescing patient to the peak of physical condition.
Synonyms and related keywords: therapeutic exercise, enable ambulation, release contracted muscles, release contracted tendons, release contracted fascia, mobilize joints, improve circulation, improve respiratory capacity, improve coordination, reduce rigidity, improve balance, promote relaxation, improve muscle strength, maximal voluntary contractile force, MVC, improve exercise performance, improve functional capacity, improve endurance
Lieberman, Bockenek & Stendig-Lindberg 2007
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) currently is one of the most commonly used forms of electroanalgesia. Hundreds of clinical reports exist concerning the use of TENS for various types of conditions such as low back pain (LBP), myofascial and arthritic pain, sympathetically mediated pain, bladder incontinence, neurogenic pain, visceral pain, and postsurgical pain. Because many of these studies were uncontrolled, there has been ongoing debate about the degree to which TENS is more effective than placebo in reducing pain.
Kaye & Brandstater 2007