Bone Transplantation (Subscribe)

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Bone Grafting and Bone Graft Substances

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Bone Graft Substitute Materials eMedicine Orthopedics

Laurencin & Khan 2005
Of the 300,000 grafting procedures performed in 1998, 9 of 10 involved the use of either autograft or allograft tissue. The current standard is for autograft tissue bone grafts, in which tissue is harvested from the patient, usually from the iliac crest, but possibly from the distal femur or the proximal tibia. The graft is then placed at the injury site. This tissue is ideal as a bone graft because it possesses all of the characteristics necessary for new bone growth—namely, osteoconductivity, osteogenicity, and osteoinductivity.
Despite the benefits of autografts and allografts, the limitations of each have necessitated the pursuit of alternatives. Using the 2 basic criteria of a successful graft, osteoconduction and osteoinduction, investigators have developed several alternatives, some of which are available for clinical use and others of which are still in the developmental stage. This article reviews what is currently available and what is on the horizon.
Synonyms and related keywords: implant, autograft, allograft, polymer, ceramic, calcium sulfate, hydroxyapatite, bone repair, bone reconstruction, bone harvesting

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